EuroCourse 1 Content



Senior managers should not only know and understand but also use the basic human performance tools, for example three way communication, pre job briefing, self checking… because although they are not touching physically a plant component or equipment, their managerial work is also subject to errors that can lead to latent errors that will produce eventually an active  error.
Learning Outcomes:
Through active participation to the training module, including pre-study of learning tools, the senior managers will gain:
• Knowledge and understanding of essential responsibilities, accountability and role of management in building, promoting and encouraging safety culture; importance of leadership;
• General knowledge of the context of complex technical and organisational systems with regard to Radiation Protection, Safety and Safety Culture;
• Knowledge and understanding of commercial and safety benefits of a strong safety culture.
• Knowledge or deepening of social and ethical behaviour

Enabling Statements:
• Understand the rationale of the system of radiological protection including the justification and optimization (ALARA) principles;
• Understand the role of international organisations in the development of the national legal frameworks;
• Appreciate basic concepts of nuclear safety (defence in depth, risk..);
• Distinguish between Safety Culture and Risk Culture;
• Understand the Safety Culture concept;
• Develop a healthy concern about the human fallibility and vulnerability;
• Use tools that can help manage the factors that cause errors;
• Adopt an attitude and a proactive mindset to identify more objectively preventable errors, failed defences and eliminate their causes;
• Recognise that human errors are not only individual problems but also organisational problems;
• Introduce and/or promote safety culture in his/her organisation.

Another reason is that senior managers should be a “role model” for their people and for this reason they should use and demonstrate that they are aligned with a culture that gives a paramount importance to minimize human errors.

Training content
1. Introduction: Objective of the Generic and Specific Modules.
• Why is Safety so important; Hazards; Examples of accidents in nuclear industrial and medical sectors

2. The need for Radiological Protection
• Introduction of the historic roles of the international organizations in the construction of the national legal frameworks;
• Radioactivity and the effects of ionizing radiation on health (basic concepts: internal and external exposures); Dose vs. health risks, precautionary approach and linear no-threshold model.
• The definition of the 3 principles of Radiation Protection with emphasis on the optimization principle.
• The use of dose constraints and reference levels

3. Risk justification and risk perception.

4. The need for Nuclear Safety; Defense in depth.

5. Safety Culture definition; IAEA: INSAG 4; SF-1; GS-R3; GS-G-3.1;
• How to measure Safety Culture;
• How to manage Safety Culture.
• Safety culture principles and attributes (ref. INPO / WANO documents “Principles for a Strong Nuclear Safety Culture”)

6. Excellence In Human Performance (Human Performance Fundamentals):
• Human Performance
• Origins of Events
• Principles of Human Performance
• Human Fallibility and Vulnerability
• Error-Likely Situation
• Performance Modes
• Error Prevention
• Team Errors
• Learning by errors
• Role of Organization in Human Performance
• Defenses
• Leader Defined
• Key Leadership Practices
• Positive doing or acting and as an outcome, positive solutions

7. Case studies

8. Final reflection exercise and course feedback
• Brainstorming exercise: List of things to :
- Stop doing
- Start doing
- Continue doing
- Optimize/Maximize

9. Course and Participant Appraisal